Miller's Homemade Soap Pages


Tips on Making Clear Glycerin Soap 



... If you have trouble, Kathy is NOT the person to ask! ;-)


Rachael's Original Instructions:

NOTE: If you plan to make clear glycerin soap for sale, you should check the F.D.A. rules about the use of rubbing alcohol in soap... particularly in Canada where soap is handled more like a cosmetic.

This first information was offered by Rachael and posted on the Latherings Soap Forum. She cautions that it takes a bit of practice to do this, but these are the steps and once you get the hang of it, it's rather simple. As a note...if you don't want to purchase liquor or Vodka for such purposes, you can order a stronger alcohol from the pharmacist. I believe what you want is about a 99% solution (regular rubbing alcohol is 70% and not as effective in rendering a clear soap... particularly if it's isopropyl... see Jeff's post below).

For 3 pounds of soap shavings you will need approximately:

1 1/2 cups high proof alcohol (whichever kind you, 99% rubbing, etc.)
10 oz. sugar, moistened in just enough hot water to dissolve it, but as little as possible
6 - 8 oz. glycerin

-Kathy M.


Subject: glycerin soap
From: Rachael
To: Everyone
Forum: Latherings
Date: Thurs, Dec 03, 1998 at 14:31:01 (EST)

You guys don't need a book to make clear soap. and you don't need a recipe either. I make the stuff all the time, and I make it from shavings, uneven corners that got trimmed, undersized bars, soap that didn't cure out with a good smell (new scent trials), etc. They don't need to be made of anything particular, aged or unaged, new or old, or soft or hard. You just need clean shaved soap, a covered double boiler or crock pot, really strong alcohol (vodka is good), and glycerin to add to it. You melt the soap down, using half the etoh to start, much like you would do a rebatch using milk. Get it melted COMPLETELY and thin in consistency by adding the rest of the alcohol when it has melted. Add the dissolved 10 oz. of sugar and 6 - 8 oz. of glycerin (for each 3 pounds) and blend. Then you just cook it on this really low, low heat. When you get "strings" or ropey looking ribbons falling off the spoon you are using, and a little dropping off the spoon onto a cold counter hardens up, your done. So then you pour the stuff into a container and melt it the next day ... that draws off the left over moisture from it. It's still got a couple of extra melts in it left over, for messing around with it. I recently wondered if I should start making this stuff in eight pound buckets and selling it to melt-and-pour fiends - the stuff is cheap to make and expensive to buy.

... etoh is the vodka, and rubbing alcohol (70%) works fine too (Ed.note: look for the 99% stuff...Costco has it here), but doesn't give a clear soap, just a rubbery gelatinous soap (glycerin soap) that is cloudy, kind of like frosted glass. The higher alcohol level and the lower the water level in the stuff you use, the clearer the product. The second melt is after you have finished the stuff the first day. You just pull the plug, turn the burner off, and let it sit in the pot, or pan/bowl (or pour it into something to sit until tomorrow) and remelt the whole thing the next day. It takes a whole ten minutes to melt...not too much planning there (like all melt and pour). If it still seems less than clear to you, firm it up, and melt it again. It uses up all the water in it, and the water content is what makes the stuff cloudy looking. A quick note of advice: it's kind of an learned thing, so don't get frustrated if it doesn't work out right away (and don't throw anything out either, just post problems, they are all fixable). I compare everything to cooking have to learn to cook. It just takes some practice to know what you're looking at ... like your first trace in the soap bowl ... did you know what it was right away? I didn't - I stirred that stuff into a solid rock, then decided it looked ready to pour into a mold!


 Some elaboration on this technique from Jules on Latherings:

The trick is to make sure that the soap scraps are totally melted down before you add the alcohol and what not...when you make transparent from scratch, you add all of that stuff when the soap is in the middle of its hot gel need to try to approximate this stage with your scraps.

I've found that larger batches work better in making transparent, both in Rachael's method, and in making it from scratch. Don't be afraid of heat, either...the first time I did it, I was soooooo cautious, using a double boiler and all that - ended up with translucent rubbery glop. Next time I made it, I did it with direct medium-low heat (I did add a teeny bit of water to help the soap melt) and it worked out much better. I don't usually have much in the way of scraps after trimming my soap, so I haven't done it this way in a long long time, but it does eventually work. Just be prepared to lose a batch or two while you're getting the hang of it. Rachael's been doing this for a heckuva long time and it works for her...but even she says that it takes some practice. Most soapers, I believe, don't let it get runny enough for reasonable transparency.

It DOES take practice to get it right, though, and it might actually be easier to do if you've made transparent soap from scratch first!

I much prefer transparent made from scratch, as you can control the colour and clarity much better (you don't superfat transparent soap more than just a teeny cushion, and excess oils make cloudier soap), but transparent made using scraps is great for chunking up and throwing into a batch of fresh cold process.


Here's another great tip from the Latherings Forum! Someone was asking what to do about foam that had formed on the top of their clear glycerin soap after pouring.

Subject: Re: glycerin soap/foam?
Posted by: Liz
Date: 25 February 1999

You can skim the soap or use rubbing alcohol out of your medicine cabinet and put some in a spray bottle. Spray the layer of foam and if it's fresh it should disappear. Next time, spray the top of your soap as soon as the bubbles appear - as the alcohol evaporates it will leave a smooth clean finish. Did you stir it up a little too much? With Glycerin especially, don't stir it as much as poke it around during melting and very carefully add your dyes and scents - less stirring makes less bubbles is all. The good thing is that your bubbles rose to the top instead of staying in the bars! I hope this helps.

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Jeff Bobeck's Method:

Subject: Clear Soap Using 70% Ethanol (Not Isopropyl)

Date: 06/30 3:46 AM
From: Jeff Bobeck

Hi Kathy,

I thought you might like these instructions, because there are lots of us who live in states where 95% etoh is illegal, but we can find 70% etoh sold as rubbing alcohol. -Jeff


Here are my recipe and instructions for very transparent soap. It's based on Catherine Failor's method, which assumes that everyone can find grain alcohol, which is 95% ethanol (etoh). I can't, but I do have access to a special rubbing alcohol which contains 70% etoh (and 30% water). That's what you need for this adaptation. Regular rubbing alcohol, which is made of isopropyl alcohol, is no good. It doesn't produce a clear-as-glass soap the way ethanol does, so be sure the label says "70% ethanol". If (WHEN) you find a pharmacy that carries it, it will be with the regular rubbing alcohol.

Failor describes an elaborate setup, requiring you to make a plastic tent to cover the soap pot, with holes in it for your spoon and thermometer, etc. From my own experience, I found that a saucepan with a tight-fitting lid works perfectly well. How well? Failor says the industry standard for clarity is the ability to read 14-point typeface through 1/4 inch of soap. But I can very easily read 8-point through 3/4 inch of my soap, as long as the sides of it are smooth. I'm not bragging here, just stating a fact. It's especially clear when you go to use it. And the color is sort of like ginger ale, but much lighter. Almost colorless, so it takes coloring well.

As you will see below, you have four choices for the first ingredient. 1) Lard + stearic acid, 2) tallow, and 3) palm oil will make good, hard soap. 4) Lard without stearic acid will make the soap a little soft, but it's okay. It's just better with the stearic. One word of know how when you render tallow, you add a little salt to help take out the impurities? Well, salt is a big no-no in clear soap- it can form cloudy mineral deposits. So, if you're rendering tallow for clear soap, you have to omit the salt.

I had to increase the rubbing alcohol (containing 70% ethanol) to get the same amount of actual etoh that you would get with grain alcohol (95% etoh), and that brings more water into the formula (the remaining 30%). Too much water will decrease the transparency of the soap. So I compensated it by shorting the water for the lye. This presents a SLIGHT problem, as I explain later.

13 oz lard + 1 oz stearic acid
-or 14 oz tallow
-or 14 oz palm oil
-or 14 oz lard
(pick one of the above 4 choices)
5.4 oz coconut oil
8.3 oz castor oil
4 oz lye
5 oz distilled water
13 oz ethanol at 70%
3 oz glycerin
8 oz sugar
5 oz water

Make soap as you usual way from the first ingredients, down to and including the 5 oz water. If you use stearic acid, don't include it just yet. When the oils are at 145°F and the lye is at 135°F (give or take a few degrees) add the lye to the oils. Let the soap reach a medium trace, and if you are using stearic acid, melt it separately and add it now. It will probably form small lumps, but don't worry about them. Assuming you are using a saucepan for this, cover it and set it into a larger pot of hot water. Leave it there for a couple hours while it goes into a gel phase. If it isn't too solid to be stirred, then stir it up halfway through. This is the slight problem I mentioned earlier. Failor's recipe uses more water in the lye, and the soap stays liquid enough to stir it in the gel phase. Because I had to reduce the water, the soap solidifies, but it's all right in the end. Try mashing it a little with a potato masher.

My batch is one-third the size of Failor's. If you increase the size, then you can probably do without the large pot of hot water. Just wrap the soap pot in blankets to let it get hot.

After two hours, the soap should be as completely saponified as it needs to be. Put a little of it in a glass of water and let it dissolve. If there is a lot of oil on top, leave the soap on the heat for a while longer and then test again.

When the soap is ready, break it up with a potato masher, if it's solid. Add the alcohol and glycerin. Stir it up, break up the soap even more if you can (or have to) and cover it. Try to keep the cover on as much as possible so the alcohol won't evaporate. Set the soap pot back on the hot water and wait for the soap to dissolve. After it does, if you see any large chunks, break them up, but do it quickly.

Eventually there will be nothing but little pieces floating in a skin of soap on top. Scoop this up and throw it out. Or set it aside.

Boil the remaining water and add the sugar to it. When the sugar is COMPLETELY molten, pour this into the soap. If there are still undissolved sugar crystals, they will probably form cloudy spots in the soap, as it cures. Stir, cover and wait for the temp to come down to 140°F - 145°F. When it does, you can now do what you want. It's cool enough for the alcohol not to evaporate, nor to damage your FOs and EOs.

Any plastic molds work great. Milky Way molds, and the kind they sell at North Country, and chocolate molds, for example. I also made molds by taking a small mini-loaf tin, about 4"x2", and, with the tin upside down, wrapped the bottom and sides with tin foil. That way, the foil can be peeled off when the soap is hard. And the soap doesn't react with the aluminum, as cp soap does.

If you do decide to scent and color individual bars, have the FO and dye ready before you pour the soap, because a skin will form very quickly. I did individual bars with different colors so I would have enough variety to make stained glass soap, but you can scent and color the whole batch all at once.

When the soap is cooled down to room temp, you should be able to peel off the tin foil. It's best to put the soap in the fridge. If you used plastic molds, you may have to freeze them to get the soap out. This doesn't hurt the soap at all. The faster the cooldown, the better!

Give the soap about two weeks to dry and become even more transparent and longer-lasting.


COLORS (the food coloring I used is McCormick's. Other brands may be very different.):

Yellow food coloring is great.

Green is as well, but it's very strong, so you may want to mix it with a little alcohol if you are going to color a small amount of soap. Even one drop in a 3-ounce bar will give you a fairly dark green.

Red food coloring is weak and opaque. If you try to achieve a medium shade of red, you'll have to use so much that the soap will lose its transparency.

You're much better off with D&C Red#33, which is strong and clear. It's a dark purple powder. Mix a small amount, using the tip of a knife to measure it, with about a Tbsp or 2 of alcohol. There may be a sediment on the bottom, so you might want to pour the dye off into a small bottle, leaving the sediment behind.

Blue food coloring is awful! Really dull and ugly, and then it fades. FD&C Blue #1 is perfect. Gorgeous medium true-blue (or lighter or darker, depending on how much you use, of course.) It's also a purple powder- handle it the same as the red I mentioned. You can get both of these from Lori the Pigment Lady.

Unfortunately, this blue will also fade if you leave the soap exposed to too much light. You can lay something over it, like a sheet of slightly rumpled tin foil, so the air can get at it. But at least it's beautiful and you can keep it that way easily, unlike blue food coloring.

BTW, all FD&C dyes are food grade. D&C dyes are for drugs and cosmetics. Perfectly safe to use, and very economical because you hardly use any at all.

If you have any questions, feel free to ask me!

-Jeff Bobeck-

Thank you for your generosity in sharing all this, Jeff! If you folks have questions, I have no experience with this! - Kathy M.

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Subject: Clear Soapmaking Tips
Date: 2/4/03
From: Jerker A.


I´ve read Jeff´s information when making clear glycerine soap. Here is another tip, that will help the alcohol not to evaporate.

1.  As Jeff said, use a tight fitting lid.
2.  Take one or two plastic ice-cube´s (I don´t know what you call it) and place it on the lid.

This will help the alcohol-gas to become liquid again, and drop down into the soap.


Jerker Andersson   //    Sweden

From: Marcella L.
Date: October 14, 201


... I just loved your site. What a fun place for people who like to make soap and get even a little "cooky" about it.

I do want to mention something really funny. I went to the link for transparent soap and read all the recipes and formulas. Some were very detailed and some a bit more simplified. I started to go with one recipe with a 4 step process and realized that I added the ingredients in the wrong order. So I just added all the ingredients to the Slow Cooker at once. It was basically a one step process. (#1. Throw everything in the pot. )

So after 30 minutes on low, I had the string like glycerin dripping off the spoon. The soap came out perfect! I could even read 14 point type through 1/4" of it. I wanted to see if I could repeat the process to make sure it wasn't a blessed accident and have made three batches since and they all came out perfectly. So strange and funny - throw everything in the slow cooker, boil 30 minutes, pour, done.....

Of course I wrote it in the "Scientific Soaper" log.

Thank you again for your great site!


I don't know that the soap would actually be "boiling" for 30 minutes... but point well taken. :-) - Kathy M.


Transparent Soap Instructions from Kristy of Lovely Lathers of Ohio (Added January of 2007)

Hi, my name is Kristy... I have been very intrigued by making transparent soap. If you are like me, I get more satisfaction by making my own transparent soap rather than use melt and pour which has the extra chemicals. I do not like chemicals.

It is very rewarding. I decided to post a recipe and instructions because I haven't really found a good source on the internet that worked for me. I started out by reading Catherine Failor's book about making transparent soap. I would recommend that also, but if not, I hope these instructions will help. Keep in mind; I am no expert at this. I’m still in the learning stages. These instructions work great for me.  

I wanted to give recognition to a very sweet, very patient person that helped me tremendously in starting to make transparent soap. She coached me through it the whole way. Her name is Winter on Latherings forum. If it wasn’t for her, I wouldn’t have been able to do it and would have given up. Please be courteous and respect her privacy. If you have any questions, don't hesitate to contact me (Kristy). I will try to answer in a timely manner.

I only make transparent soap for shaving, embeds or cutting up into small chunks for mixing into a batch of white cold process soap for a stained glass look. I also leave mine unscented. These soaps alone can be a little harsh because of the low superfat/lye discount. Winter said they will eventually sink in the middle after sitting awhile but can make good hand soaps. I also noticed they curve upward on the bottoms. If you make flat sheets of transparent soap to do layering with cold process soap, you may want to wait a couple days and then lay a book on top of the sheet for a weight. I haven't tried this yet, but it should work. Do not cut into the size you need until after the cure because the soap does shrink greatly. I didn't think and cut mine into the size of my log and ended up with narrower and shorter strips.

Please note: Make sure you have experience in soap making first, whether it's cold process or hot process before attempting. In addition, I would not suggest making transparent soap with a gas lit stove because of fire risk with use of alcohol and the resultant fumes.

Please read instructions all the way through a couple of times before attempting.


• You will need the highest proof vodka you can buy. I buy Galen's 151 vodka at the state liquor store.
• You can buy 190 proof Everclear if it is legal in your state. I'm in Ohio, so it is illegal.
• I have never tried a lower proof alcohol.
• You can read a little more about it in the posts from other people.

From what I have read in Catherine’s book, you can mix ethanol and isopropyl together to make soap but it will not be as clear. In Canada, from what I have learned from Winter, Shopper’s Drug Mart carries 95% ethanol, called Life Brand (their store brand). It is also up to you to check with regulations on the use of alcohol in your country and state.

Equipment needed:

• Large Double Boiler (I use a stainless steel stockpot with glass lid inserted into wider pot with metal trivet laying on the bottom. I had no luck finding a large double boiler anywhere.)
Large Pyrex Measuring Cups
Molds ready to pour into (preferably silicone molds because they are easier to release). If you don’t have these you can use individual plastic molds (shapes). Don’t use waxed-paper lined wooden molds because the soap is like water when poured and will run between the waxed paper and mold. Line with one continuous piece of plastic.
Towels in case of splashing water and for covering the stockpot.
Stick Blender
Lots of Spoons and/or Spatula

 Here is a list I gathered of which oils will make clear soap.

Almond: Close lasting lather, very mild and makes clear soap
Apricot Kernel: Medium lather, very mild and makes clear soap
Avocado: Dense lather, mild and makes clear soap
Canola: Medium lather, mild and makes clear soap
Castor: Thick lather, mild and makes very clear soap
Coconut: Foamy bubbles, harsh and also makes clear soap
Lard: In my opinion makes a clear soap. Other sources say otherwise.
Olive Oil: Close lasting lather, mild and makes a clear soap
Palm: Lasting bubbles, very mild but makes cloudy soap
Palm Kernel: Large bubbles, harsh but makes clear soap
Tallow: Lasting bubbles, very mild but makes a very cloudy soap

Stearic acid also makes clear soap and helps to harden soft oils. It has a habit of delaying trace, so melt it separately then add at medium trace. Do not use at more then 3.5% of your total oils because it can cause a “drag." [Kathy M. would suggest melting the stearic acid with the base oils at the very start, to ensure even blending.]



This recipe is my personal favorite. It makes very clear soap in my opinion...

Base Part of Recipe

These recipes are 40 oz. of oils. If you don’t want to make this much you can split recipe in half.
The oils in these recipes will make your clearest soaps.

Recipe 1:

20 oz. Lard or 50% of total oils
8 oz. Coconut Oil or 20% of total oils
12 oz. Castor Oil or 30% of total oils
15.2 oz. Distilled water
5.8 oz. lye

Your lye discount will be 0% for a clearer soap.

Veggie Recipe 1:

16 oz. Palm Oil or 40% of total oils
12 oz. Coconut Oil or 30% of total oils
12 oz. Castor Oil or 30% of total oils
19.8 oz. Distilled water
6 oz. lye

Your lye discount will be 0% for a clearer soap.


Veggie Recipe 2:

12 oz. Palm Oil or 30% of total oils
12 oz. Coconut Oil or 30% of total oils
8 oz. Sweet Almond Oil or 20% of total oils
8 oz. Castor Oil or 20% of total oils
15.2 oz. Distilled water
6 oz. lye

Your lye discount will be 0% for a clearer soap. The reason for no supferfatting is to achieve clarity.


Second part of recipe

Remember alcohol is lighter in weight than water, so make sure you have more than what is called for in your recipe. I usually have two bottles on hand at all times just in case. You do not want to run out of this very important ingredient. One pint of alcohol weighs around 12.5 oz. Compensate for evaporation. It evaporates very quickly when heated. Also, keep the lid on as much as possible!

Alcohol will be 35% of total volume (before evaporation)
Sugar will be 28% of total volume
Glycerin will be 15% of total volume

40 ozs. of oils will call for:

14 oz. Alcohol
11.2 oz. sugar dissolved into 4 oz. boiling water. Dissolve sugar thoroughly in as little water as possible. If sugar crystals are left, it will cause cloudy soap.
6 oz. Glycerin

Now for the instructions:

1. Make sugar solution and have ready to heat on stove.
2. Preheat oven to 160-180 degrees.
3. Place a glass or Pyrex cup into refrigerator.
4. Pour alcohol into a squirt bottle and position next to stove ready for spritzing.
5. Lay a towel on the floor in front of stove, in case of water splash.
6. Measure out your alcohol and glycerin and have ready. Cover alcohol with plastic wrap so it does not evaporate.
7. Combine water and lye and set aside.
8. Melt oils and fats in your main stockpot.
9. Combine oils and lye between 135-145 degrees.
10. Pour lye very slowly while stick blending
11. Stick blend until very thick trace.
12. Cover pot with glass lid and place into oven for 15-20 minutes.
13. It will be very thick at this point so use a heavy spoon.
14. Stir.
15. Cover and cook for 15-20 more minutes.
16. If it hasn’t gelled, cook for 10 more minutes or until it slides cleanly off the back of metal spoon. It should look somewhat like thick amber applesauce. Also you can add a teaspoon of soap to a cup of water and let dissolve, if a lot of oil floats on top,  cook a little longer.
17. Remove from oven and slowly add half the alcohol and full amount of glycerin. Stir and scrape sides and bottom of pot very well.
18. Stir quickly and immediately replace lid.
19. If using a home fashioned double boiler, insert your stockpot into another pot ( on top of trivet with a couple inches of water).
20. When soap begins to melt, stick blend the heck out of it until there are no more chunks.
21. It should look thick and gel-like.
22. Add the other half of alcohol and quick buzz with stick blender, then quickly replace lid.
23. If lots of foam forms, squirt with alcohol. Keep lid on.
24. Cover with halved towel.
25. Use caution when heating, lay small towels around the burner for splashing water but not too close.
26. Heat until temperature reaches 160-175 degrees. Don’t allow temperature to get too high, your soap should bubble not boil. Watch out for splashing water between the upper and lower pots.
27. Cook for 15 minutes with intermittent stick blending.
28. If you see a lot of foam forming, add 1⁄2 oz.-1 oz. alcohol at a time.
29. Keep on a spritzin' with alcohol to achieve clearness.
30. It should be clear. If not, cook a little longer.
31. If soap is clear, remove from heat.
32. If soap becomes jelly-like add 1⁄2 - 1 oz. more alcohol at a time.
33. Set pot into sink.
34. Bring sugar solution temperature to 160 degrees. Soap should be around 160 degrees also. Add sugar solution very slowly to soap while stirring slowly.
35. Return to double boiler and allow to reach 180 degrees.
36. Remove pot promptly.
37. Drizzle small amount of soap onto your upside-down cold glass or Pyrex cup.
38. If soap is clear, proceed to next step. If not; cook longer with a little more alcohol.
39. Keep lid on and let cool to 130-140 degrees.
40. To lengthen playtime, leave sit in hot water of double boiler with heat shut off or sit in hot water in sink.
41. The trick is keeping the soap hot to be able to have time to color and scent.
42. If you notice your soap has a skin on top just spray with alcohol really well or let it be caught in the sieve.
43. At this stage, do not scrape sides of stockpot of stuck on soap. It will affect clarity.
44. Pour through sieve into Pyrex cups and add fragrance and color. Stir lightly. (Check about colors from the other post on this site.) Spritz with alcohol if foam forms on top.  
45. You can divide into several Pyrex cups and do as many colors as wanted but remember... you have to work fast!
46. Make sure your flashpoints on fragrance oils are high enough for 130-140 degrees.

The faster your soap cools the more transparent it will be. Winter puts her molds outside in the winter like on a porch and pours into the molds so they will cool faster and freeze. I tried it last night and it does work great.

47. Pour into molds as quickly as possible and spray down foam with alcohol. Spritz until smooth.
48. Let sit undisturbed until soap is completely firm. If you have trouble releasing soap, freeze for an hour and try again.
49. Let cure for 2 weeks before cutting soap because soap will shrink. Ask me how I know!
50. Keep in mind the longer the soap cures, the clearer it becomes.

A couple more tips:

• Your soap will be a natural amber color before coloring; this does not affect your final color.
• If you’re making your soaps for decorative use, when unmolding use rubber gloves so you won’t get fingerprints on the soap.
• I would suggest starting with one color until you get the hang of it, then you will know what to expect.
• The thinner the soap, the more transparent it will appear.
• Transparent soap needs time to harden.
• Frozen soap will look cloudy; let it rest first before checking for clarity.
• Make sure to use 0-1% superfat for clearer soap.

If you find your soap is sticky or not clear after removing from the molds, you can cut it back up into small pieces into a large Pyrex cup, heat at half power in the microwave for a couple minutes at a time until all melted down. If you have a couple chunks left over in the mix, stir with a spoon and they will melt. Add a couple more ounces of alcohol, stir and pour through a sieve into another Pyrex cup. Now pour into your molds. I also do this if I didn’t quite achieve the color I wanted. I add more color and alcohol and pour into molds. Make sure you do this within the first couple of days because you risk evaporating alcohol, which reduces transparency and makes sticky soap.

After freezing, let soaps thaw for about 3 or 4 minutes and they should pop out.

When creating recipes, use the Soap-Calc. It is my favorite tool!


Thanks for reading and Happy Soaping!   ~Kristy

This page last updated on 14 October 2011.
If you still have questions, please read through the information on the Troubleshooting Help page, MOST Frequently Asked Questions and Modern Procedures. More can also be learned through the Botched Batches and Soapy Success pages. Many common problems have already been addressed on the site and it's difficult for me to keep up with emails these days and get anything else done. If your question involves my looking up information that you can also research, or going over numbers and recipe calculations, I might not respond if in the middle of a project around our home and garden. I apologize for this, since I've enjoyed my correspondence with people and don't like to ignore emails of any kind. Thanks! :-)